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Analyse de l'eau

Boiler water analysis

If you supervise a limited-attendance or unattended boiler then Lenntech can assist you with your water testing requirements.

Boiler water tests available

The specific method of chemical treatment used varies with the type of boiler and the specific properties of the water from which the boiler feed is derived. This is very site specific but Lenntech has the testing capability to cover all your requirements.

A boiler requires testing of three different water types as shown below:

Feedwater

Boiler feedwater is sourced from many different places. Some supplies come from industry owned bores and treatment plants, while others come directly from a council supply, however all feedwater should be analysed in order to correctly determine dose rates of treatment chemicals.

Water quality can change as it passes through a delivery or reticulation system, so it is important to check for various parameters at point of use - ie where it enters the boiler or pre-treatment system.

Boiler feedwater is usually a combination of returned condensate plus pre-treated makeup water from a softener, reverse osmosis, or other purification system. Typical tests used for boiler feedwater include:

  • Chloride or salinity
  • Conductivity
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • Hardness
  • Iron and Manganese  
  • pH
  • Silica
  • Sulphide
  • Suspended Solids
  • Total Dissolved Solids
  • Turbidity

Not all water supplies will require all the tests shown here, and if the supply is constant the tests will not need to be repeated very often.

Boiler Water

The boiler water itself must be dosed in order for the boiler to run efficiently and safely. A chemical imbalance can lead to corrosion and damage to the system and this damage can ultimately lead to boiler failure and injury.

Boiler water analyses are basically aimed at keeping the parameters within established limits.

Tests include

  • Chloride
  • Hydroxide P2 Alkalinity
  • Nitrate
  • pH
  • Phenolphthalein P1 Alkalinity
  • Phosphate
  • Silica
  • Sulphite
  • Total Alkalinity
  • Total Dissolved Solids

Condensate

Good condensate is the best quality, least expensive water most systems can generate. You do not want to lose it, or contaminate it unnecessarily.

Steam condensate analysis should include

  • Ammonia
  • Conductivity
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • pH

Test

Description

Make-up, Raw Water pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride, Ortho-Phosphate, Total Inorganic Phosphate
Clarifier, Softener, Filter-Alum pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Aluminium, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride
Clarifier, Softener, Filter-Lime pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Filtered Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride, Total Inorganic Phosphate
Sodium Zeolite, Dealkalizer, Desilicizer, Softened Make-up pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride
Hydrogen Zeolite, Strong Acid Cation pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride
Mixed Bed Exchanger, Degasifier, Anion Exchanger, Demineralizer Conductivity, Filtered Hardness, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Reactive Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride
Deaerating Heater, Feedwater, Condensate Polisher pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Reactive Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride, Total Phosphate.
Blowdown – Expected Conductance >300 µS/cm pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Sulphur, Chloride, Nitrate, Ortho-Phosphate
Blowdown – Expected Conductance >300 µS/cm pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Silica Reactive, Sulphur, Chloride, Nitrate, Ortho-Phosphate
Steam Condensate Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Silicate, Reactive Silica, Sulphur, Chloride

Cooling water analysis

Cooling tower is a heat removal devices used to eliminate waste heat of air released to atmosphere. This process allows airborne contaminants, organic matters and particles to become deposited into the cooling water. This, combined with the contaminants in the feed water, creates an environment for microorganism growth, solid deposits and scaling.

Improper treated cooling tower water could be an amplifier of biological hazardous agent. The warm and moist environment of a cooling tower favors the growth of Legionella bacteria which causes the outbreak of the deathly Legionnaires' disease. Thus, cooling tower water quality must be monitored in a regular basis to prevent spreading of diseases to users.

Test

Description

Make-up, Raw Water pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Total Manganese, Sodium, Total Silica, Sulphur, Chloride, Ortho-Phosphate, Total Inorganic Phosphate, Total Zinc
Cooling Tower, Air Washer pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Total Manganese, Sodium, Total Silica, Sulphur, Chloride, Ortho-Phosphate, Total Zinc
Sea water/Brine pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Manganese, Total Iron, Total Copper, Total Silica, Sulphur, Ortho-Phosphate, Total Zinc
High Cycle Tower, Jacket, Brine pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Manganese, Total Iron, Total Copper, Total Silica, Sulphur, Ortho-Phosphate, Total Zinc
Closed System, Glycol pH, Specific Gravity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Total Silica, Sulphur, Chloride
Closed System, Non-Glycol pH, P/M-Alkalinity, Conductivity, Total Hardness, Total Calcium, Total Magnesium, Total Iron, Total Copper, Sodium, Total Silica, Sulphur, Chloride

Individual analytical parameters

Test

Description

Acidity as ppm CaCO3 Titration
AEC polymer Turbidimetric – Spectrophotometric
Benzotriazole (BZT) HPLC-UV/VIS (Liquid Chromatography)
Bromide Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
Carbon, Total Thermocatalytic, IR (Limit Of Detection = 1 ppm C)
Carbon, Total Organic Thermocatalytic, IR( Limit Of Detection = 1 ppm C)
Carbon, NPOC Non Purgeable Organic Carbon (UV/Persulfate)
LOD = 0.1 ppm C
NaOH (% w/w) Titration
Citrate (Citric Acid) Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
COD
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Closed vial, chromate oxidation, Spectrophotometric
Chloride Segmented Flow Analysis, spectrophotometric
Chloride Ion Chromatography (Conductivity) – LOD = 0.1 ppm
Ion Chromatography (Conductivity) – LOD = 0.001 ppm
Color, True APHA PtCo Standard Method, Spectrophotometric
Color, Apparent APHA PtCo Standard Method, Spectrophotometric
Conductivity (µS/cm)
at 25ºC
Electrometric
Cyanide, Free Acid Distillation, Spectrophotometric
Cyanide, Total UV-Digestion, Acid Distillation, Spectrophotometric
Fluoride Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
HPS I/HPS II Turbidimetric – Spectrophotometric
Specific Gravity Specific Gravity at 20ºC
Halogen Resistant Azole (HRA) HPLC-UV/VIS (Liquid Chromatography)
Halides, Total Organic TOX, coulometric (= AOX + POX)
Halides, Absorbable Organic AOX, coulometric (includes TOC Analyses)
Halides, Purgeable Organic POX, coulometric
Humic Acid Spectrophotometric, Tungsten-Molybdate/Tartrate
Lithium (ppb) Flame AAS
Discount for Li tracer studies (>10 samples) – call lab
Nitrate Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
Nitrite Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
Nitrogen, Free Ammonia Destillation, spectrophotometric
Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl Acid Digestion, Destillation, spectrophotometric
Oxalate Ion Chromatography (Conductivity)
Oil and Grease/Mineral Oil
(LOD = 5 ppm)
Tetrachloro-ethylene extractables, IR
Florosil treatment (removal of polar compounds)
Mineral Oil
(LOD = 100 ppb)
GC/FID (fraction C10 – C40)
PH Electrometric
PSD 1 (high TSS) Particle Size Distribution (Light Scattering)
PSD 2 (low TSS) Particle Size Distribution (Laser Obscuration)
Phosphate, Ortho Spectrophotometric
Phosphate, total Inorganic Acid Digestion, Spectrophotometric
Phosphate, total Inorganic Acid & Persulphate Digestion, Spectrophotometric
Silica, Reactive (ppb SiO2) Spectrophotometric
Silica, Total ICP-AES + acid digestion
Sodium (ppb) AAS + digestion or filtration
Solids, Total Drying at 105ºC, gravimetric
Solids, Total Dissolved Filtration, Drying at 105ºC, gravimetric
Solids, Total Suspended Filtration, Drying at 105ºC, gravimetric
Solids, Settable Imhoff cone, after 2 hours
Sulphate Ion Chromatography (Conductivity) – 0.1 ppm SO4
Ion Chromatography (Conductivity) – 0.001 ppm SO4
Sulfide Distillation, spectrophotometric
Sulfite Titration (Iodate-Iodide)
Tannin and Lignin Spectrophotometric, Tyrosine method
Tolyltriazole HPLC-UV/VIS (Liquid Chromatography)
Turbidity Nephelometry
Total Metals (ICP-OES) Inductive Couple Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Analysis per Element (minimum 2)
Filtration (Dissolved metals)
Digestion (Total metals)
Total Metals (ICP-MS)
(ppt – ppb level)
(typical LOD < 1 ppb)
Inductive Couple Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
Analysis per Element (minimum 2)
Filtration (Dissolved metals)
Digestion (Total metals)
Volatile Suspended Solids Gravimetric (at 550ºC)

Particle size distribution

Particle size distribution can greatly affect the efficiency of any collection device. Settling Chambers will normally only collect very large particles, those that can be separated using sieve trays. Centrifugsl collectors will normally collect particles down to about 20 μm. Higher efficiency models can collect particles down to 10 μm. Fabric filters are one of the most efficient and cost effective types of dust collectors available and can achieve a collection efficiency of more than 99% for very fine particles. Wet scrubbers that use liquid are commonly known as wet scrubbers. In these systems, the scrubbing liquid (usually water) comes into contact with a gas stream containing dust particles. The greater the contact of the gas and liquid streams, the higher the dust removal efficiency. Electrostatc precipitators use electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from exhaust gases. They can be very efficient at the collection of very fine particles.

Measurements techniques

Sieve analysis
Air elutriation
Photo analysis
Optical counting methods
Electroresistance methods
Sedimentation methods
Laser diffraction methods
Acoustic spectroscopy
Ultrasonic spectroscopy

A propos de Lenntech

Lenntech BV
Rotterdamseweg 402 M
2629 HH Delft

tel: +31 152 755 715
fax: +31 152 616 289
e-mail: info@lenntech.com


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